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Salehi, Digital Communications 5th ed.

McGraw-Hill, The written exam proposes practical numerical exercises that allows to judge if the student knows the topic of the course and is able to apply this knowledge to solve some simplified design examples on modern wireless and optical transmission systems. The open questions allows to judge if the student has acquired the most relevant theoretical topics of the course.

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The written exam is three hours long and it is scored on a full scale up to During the written exam, the students will be allowed to carry with them a pocket calculator, paper and pen and four single-sided pages of formulas written by themselves. No other material will be allowed such as laptops, handouts, etc.

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Skip to main content. Optical and Wireless Communication. Subject fundamentals The goal of the course is to provide detailed knowledge about specific features, potential performance and design trade-offs of practical digital communication systems based on wireless and fiber-optic transmission. Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources Both wireless and optical system topics are fully covered by the material handouts provided by the teachers, both for the lectures and the design problems.

For use in the transmit path of communications applications, the segmented current-source architecture was by itself insufficient to achieve the required SFDRs.

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To reduce the inherent causes of ac distortion, especially even harmonics, intense design effort was focused on improving output switch timing. Why is SFDR important in communications?

High-speed CMOS TxDAC™ 8-to-14-bit family with clock rates up to 125 MSPS

If a transmitter sends spurious signals into other frequency bands, they can corrupt, interrupt, or obliterate the neighboring signal s. This is considered to be bad practice, is counter to the regulations of the FCC and other regulatory bodies , and can lead to legal action. Though the and bit devices offer similar SFDR for full-scale sine waves, the higher-resolution devices have better SFDR for signals with high peak-to-average ratios and significant low-level content. In most narrow-band applications, the harmonics are filtered out, and the SFDR within "a window" or "without harmonics" is what matters.

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In wideband applications, where the DAC will be producing several signals at its output, two-tone or multi-tone performance is of especial interest. Wideband cellular basestations is another, and beyond that there are applications like ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line , which utilize discrete multi-tone based modulation schemes and depend on good multi-tone performance.

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  8. In most multi-tone applications, the output of the transmit-path DAC is normally operated at a fraction of the full-scale range e. This can be linked to timing skew attributed to the widely used R-2R ladder-network architecture-skews which the TxDACs' proprietary current-switching architecture has been optimized to minimize. The switching circuitry used in the TxDAC core provides true differential outputs, for improved performance when the devices are used differentially.

    Even though the TxDAC families' single-ended performance is outstanding in its own right, the best possible harmonic performance is achieved when the outputs are driven differentially through a transformer. Table 2 demonstrates the improvement in differential performance over single-ended for the bit AD, especially at higher frequencies.

    Optics Express

    In many cases, the figure of merit in a digital communications system is its bit-error rate BER. The variety of different wireless and wireline applications including wireless base stations and terminals for cellular, PCS, pager, wireless local loop and satellite services, and wireline modems for Internet access, interactive video set-top box, and digital subscriber lines such as ADSL, HDSL, VDSL, etc.

    Fortunately, the TxDACs' pin-compatible footprint permits price-performance trade-offs at any stage of the development cycle, and provides an upgrade path to future higher-performance systems. The system designer has the flexibility to trade off BER performance for system cost.

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    The choice permits the designer to accommodate a certain margin of error, compensating for equalization and error-correction methods and performance. Also, since data rate for a given modulation scheme is proportional to bandwidth and dynamic range, a designer can provide for increased data rates on higher-end devices. Two basic transmit architectures are shown in Figures 6 and 7. In quadrature-based modulation schemes, such as QPSK and QAM, mixers are deployed to mix the in-phase I and quadrature Q degree out of phase signals into a composite single-sideband signal for transmission.

    Figure 6 demonstrates a baseband transmit architecture that performs an analog mix of the I and Q signal. In this example, two DACs are required per transmit channel.

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    For example, in many of the TxDAC beta-site applications, users started with one resolution model and later designed-in either a higher- or lower-resolution device based on actual system performance. The system architecture in Figure 7 uses digital mixing of I and Q signals and inputs the modulated signal directly to a single DAC. In this case, the bandwidth requirements of the DAC are more stringent.

    This is adequate for directly transmitting data in high-speed modems and upstream information in interactive set-top boxes. In other applications, it could eliminate an up-converter stage. Here, too, high SFDR, low price, low power, and family pin-compatibility are desirable required attributes. They are also being used in wireless local loop and high speed wireless trunking basestations.